Vocal Production Techniques for Beatmakers, Rappers & Singers

vocal production
Rapper recording vocals in a home studio with a beatmaker producer

Vocal production is the process of recording, editing, and manipulating vocals to create the desired sound. Whether you're a singer, songwriter, rapper, beatmaker or producer, understanding how to craft compelling vocals is an essential part of making great music. In this article, we'll dive into some key techniques and best practices for vocal production, covering everything from writing catchy melodies and meaningful lyrics to recording, editing, and processing vocals with software.


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How to write a catchy melody

A catchy melody is the foundation of any great vocal performance. Whether you're writing a pop song or a ballad, a memorable melody will help your vocals stand out and connect with listeners. Here are a few tips to help you write a catchy melody:

Start with a simple idea: A catchy melody doesn't have to be complicated to be effective. Often, the best melodies are built on a simple, repeated pattern or phrase that's easy to remember.

Use a wide range: A melody that covers a wide range of pitches tends to be more interesting and memorable than one that stays within a narrow range. Experiment with different interval leaps (the distance between two notes) to add variety and keep listeners engaged.

Vary the rhythm: A melody that maintains a consistent rhythm can become monotonous. Try changing up the rhythm of your melody by introducing syncopation (offbeat accents) or adding phrasing that breaks up the beat.

Experiment with different tonal centers: A melody's tonal center, or "key," can have a big impact on its overall character. Experiment with different tonal centers to find the one that best fits your song and vocal style.

How to write meaningful lyrics

Great lyrics can make a song truly memorable and help it connect with listeners on a deeper level. Here are some tips for writing meaningful lyrics:

Start with a clear theme or message: A good place to begin when writing lyrics is to decide on a central theme or message that you want to convey. This could be a personal experience, an emotion, or a social issue. Having a clear focus will help you craft lyrics that are purposeful and resonant.

Use vivid imagery: Lyrics that paint a vivid picture in the listener's mind tend to be more effective and memorable. Use descriptive language to create vivid imagery and help listeners connect with your message.

Be authentic: Authentic lyrics are often the most impactful, as they convey genuine emotion and experiences. Don't be afraid to draw on your own personal experiences when writing lyrics – it can help you create something that's truly meaningful.


Check out my Complete Guide to Learning Music Production blog post.


How to record vocals

Recording vocals is a crucial step in the vocal production process, and it's important to get it right. Here are some tips for recording great vocals:

Choose the right microphone: Different microphones have different characteristics, and selecting the right one for your voice and recording situation is crucial. A large diaphragm condenser microphone is a good choice for most vocals, as it tends to capture a wide frequency range and provide good detail. A dynamic mic might be a better choice for loud and aggressive or live-sounding vocals.

Find a good recording space: The acoustics of your recording space can have a big impact on the sound of your vocals. A room with a lot of hard surfaces (like tile or wood) will tend to produce more reflections and coloration, while a space with more soft surfaces (like curtains or carpets) will tend to be more "dead" and neutral. Experiment with different spaces to find the one that works best for your voice and the sound you're going for.

Set up proper microphone technique: Proper microphone technique is essential for getting great vocal recordings. Make sure the microphone is at the best position to pick up the full sound of the voice - usually about 6” to 12” away depending on how loud the voice is.. Separate the microphone and voice with a pop filter to minimize “plosives” from P’s and K’s.

Create a great setting and vibe for the singer: Water, lyrics, inspirational decor, dim or colored lights and a great headphone mix.

How to edit vocals

Editing vocals involves a range of techniques for shaping and refining the sound of your vocal tracks. Here are some key considerations when editing vocals:

Comping: Comping involves selecting the best parts of multiple takes and combining them into a single, polished vocal performance. This can be a time-consuming process, but it's often worth it to achieve a professional-quality result.

Timing: Editing vocals often involves correcting timing issues, such as fixing offbeat or rushed phrasing. This can be done using a variety of tools, such as a digital audio workstation (DAW) or vocal editing software.

Pitch correction: Pitch correction tools can be used to automatically fix out-of-tune notes or adjust the pitch of a vocal performance to match the key of a song. These tools can be useful for correcting small pitch deviations, but it's important to use them sparingly to avoid making the vocals sound unnatural.



How to tune vocals with software

Tuning vocals with software involves using pitch correction tools to adjust the pitch of a vocal performance to match the key of a song. There are a variety of pitch correction tools available, including software such as Auto-Tune and Melodyne. Here are some tips for using pitch correction software effectively:

Use a subtle touch: It's important to use pitch correction sparingly, as overly-corrected vocals can sound unnatural and robotic. Aim for a subtle correction that smooths out pitch deviations without altering the character of the performance.

Pay attention to the formant: The formant is the characteristic "shape" of a vocal sound, and it's important to preserve it when using pitch correction. Some pitch correction tools allow you to adjust the formant independently of the pitch, which can help preserve the natural character of the vocal.

Use reference tracks: It can be helpful to use a reference track when tuning vocals, as it gives you a point of comparison and helps you ensure that your corrections are on target with your goals.


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How to double vocals

Doubling vocals involves creating a second, identical vocal performance and combining it with the original to create a fuller, richer sound. This can be done either by having the singer record a second take or by using pitch shifting or time stretching to create a duplicate of the original performance. Here are some tips for effectively doubling vocals:

Match the timbre and inflection: When doubling vocals, it's important to match the timbre and inflection of the original performance as closely as possible. This will help create a seamless, cohesive sound.

Experiment with panning: Panning the doubled vocals left and right can create a wider, more expansive soundstage. You can also try panning the doubled vocals slightly off center to add depth and dimension to the mix.

Use EQ to blend the doubled vocals with the original: Applying EQ to the doubled vocals can help them blend more seamlessly with the original performance. This might involve boosting or cutting certain frequencies to match the tonal balance of the original.


Read my blog post How to EQ Music & Vocals: The 5 Step Magic EQ Settings that work on everything!


How to stack harmony vocals

Stacking harmony vocals involves creating multiple vocal parts that sing different notes in harmony with the original melody. This can add depth, complexity, and interest to a vocal performance. Here are some tips for effectively stacking harmony vocals:

Experiment with different harmonies: There are countless ways to stack harmony vocals, and the best approach will depend on the character of your song and the sound you're trying to achieve. Experiment with different intervals (the distance between two notes) and chord structures to find the harmony parts that work best for your song.

Record multiple takes: When stacking harmony vocals, it's often helpful to record multiple takes of each part to give you more options when piecing together the final harmony stack. This allows you to select the best takes and blend them together to create a cohesive, polished sound.

Use panning to create a sense of space: Panning different harmony parts left and right can create a sense of space and separation in the mix. This can help the harmonies sound more distinct and allow them to sit more comfortably alongside the lead vocal.

How to EQ, compress, and mix vocals

EQ, compression, and mixing are all important techniques for shaping and refining the sound of vocals in the mix. Here are some tips for effectively EQing, compressing, and mixing vocals:

Use EQ to bring out the best in your vocals: EQ is a powerful tool for shaping the tonal balance of vocals. You can use EQ to boost or cut specific frequencies to enhance the presence, clarity, or fullness of your vocals. For example, boosting frequencies around 3-4kHz can help add clarity and presence to vocals, while boosting frequencies around 100-200Hz can add fullness and body. Try to remove some boominess and mud with the EQ by using a HPF set to 80Hz and a slight reduction at 250-350HZ.

Use compression to control dynamics: Compression is a powerful tool for controlling the dynamics of vocals and keeping them consistent from verse to chorus. When compressing vocals, it's important to set the threshold, ratio, and attack and release times appropriately to achieve the desired level of compression. Start with 4:1 with a medium attack and fast release.

Mix the vocals in context: When mixing vocals, it's important to consider the mix as a whole, not just the vocals in isolation. Make sure the vocals sit comfortably in the mix alongside the other instruments and elements and adjust the EQ, compression, and other processing as needed to achieve a cohesive, balanced sound.


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How to add delay and reverb effects to vocals

Delay and reverb are two classic effects that can add depth, dimension, and space to vocals. Here are some tips for using these effects effectively:

Use delay to create space and movement: Delay is a time-based effect that creates a repeated echo of the source sound. When applied to vocals, delay can create a sense of space and movement in the mix. You can use delay to create a simple slapback effect or use longer delay times to create more complex rhythmic patterns.

Use reverb to create a sense of space: Reverb is an effect that simulates the natural reflections of a sound in a physical space. Adding reverb to vocals creates some depth, space and dimension to the mix. Experiment with different reverb types and settings to find the sound that works best for your song. Try a decay time of 2.5 seconds and a pre-delay time of 10-15msec.

Conclusion: Vocal production is a crucial element of music production, and understanding how to craft compelling vocals is an essential part of making great music. The techniques outlined in this article can help you create vocals that stand out and connect with your listeners with exciting vocal takes and sounds. With some practice and experimentation, you'll be on your way to becoming a vocal production pro.


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